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States of India: Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is located in northeastern India and was created on February 20, 1987.

The name Arunachal stems from the Sanskrit words 'aruna' meaning 'dawn-lit' and 'achal' meaning 'mountain'.

State Symbols:
State Animal: Gayal
State Bird: Great Hornbill
State Flower: Foxtail Orchid
State Tree: Hollong


Anjaw, Changlang, Dibang Valley, East Kameng, East Siang, Kurung Kumey, Lohit, Lower Dibang Valley, Lower Subansiri, Papumpare, Tawang, Tirap, Upper Siang, Upper Subansiri, West Kameng, West Siang.

Area and Borders:
The state covers an area of 83,743 square kilometres and is bordered by Assam, Nagaland, China, Bhutan and Myanmar.

A number of languages such as Monpa, Miji, Nepali, Hill Miri, Sherdukpen, Apatani and Adi are spoken.
Learn to Speak Nepali:
  • What is your name?: Timro/Taapainko
  • (with respect) naam ke ho?
  • How are you?: Timilai kasto chhaa?
  • I am fine: Ma sanchai chhu.
  • Where should I go?: Ma kaha jau?
  • What did you do?: Timileyake ghareyaou?


The climate of Arunachal Pradesh is very hot and humid in the lower altitudes and in the valleys covered by marshy dense forests, particularly in the eastern section. The climate becomes exceedingly cold in the higher altitudes. The average temperature during the winter months ranges from 15 to 21 degree Celsius and 22 to 30 degree Celsius during monsoon.

The rainfall of Arunachal Pradesh is the heaviest in the country. The annual average rainfall is more than 3,500mms.

Some of the major crops of Arunachal Pradesh are paddy, millet, wheat, pulses, potato, sugarcane, oilseeds and maize. Agriculture in Arunachal Pradesh also comprises of the production of vegetables such as sweet potato, brinjal, ginger, pumpkin, cucumber and local cow peas. Rice is the chief food crop in Arunachal Pradesh.

The state has several medium-scale industries based on forest products. Recently, cement factories and fruit processing units have also come up in the state.
Arunachal Pradesh is also known for its craft training centres and handloom industry.

The Tawang Monastery, also known as Galden Namgyal Lhatse, was founded by Merak Lama Lodre Gyamtso in 1860. The monastery looks like a fort from a distance. It is the largest monastery of its kind in India and the second largest in Asia.
The Bomdila Monastery, also called the Gentse Gaden Rabgyel Ling Monastery, in West Kameng was started in 1965. The gompa (temple) is a replica of the Tsona Gontse Monastery in South Tibet.

Arts and Crafts:
  • The creation of cane and bamboo products is a huge industry in Arunachal Pradesh. Cane and bamboo are used to make colourful basket mats, belts, attractive pipes, jewellery, common household utensils, furniture and even weapons such as bows and arrows.
  • Another industry that flourishes in Arunachal Pradesh is weaving. Members of the Apatani tribe are the most advanced weavers in Arunachal Pradesh. The tribespeople use bark fibres extracted from trees, goat�s hair, human hair, cotton and wool for weaving. While most of the tribes weave using geometric patterns, the Adis and Apatanis use simple straight lines and the strongly individualistic Mishmis use vivid patterns and colours.
  • Wood carving is another traditional craft and the main centre for woodcarving is in the Wancho area of Tirap district.
  • Chunks of wood are turned into figure heads, animal figures, masks, images of Lord Buddha, warriors and figurines depicting different vocations common to rural life.

Traditional Clothing:
The wardrobe of men in Arunachal Pradesh consists of lungis woven in red and black yarn, jackets and turbans. The women wear a piece of cloth that covers the body from the shoulders till the knees. They complement the wrap with a full-sleeved coat and an attractive sash, locally called a muhkak around their waist.
The food in Arunachal Pradesh is non-spicy and generally bland. Dishes are seasoned with bamboo shoots and local herbs. While they eat plenty of leafy vegetables  nd maize, they also eat meat and have lots of fish and eggs. Apong is the local drink made from rice and millet.

  • Arunachal Pradesh has come to be known as a land of festivals. Most festivals are linked to agriculture and are celebrated to show thanks for god's blessings or pray for a good harvest. Animal sacrifice is a common ritual in many of the festivals in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The New Year festival is called Losar and this is one of the most important festivals in Arunachal Pradesh. On this occasion, people clean out their homes to usher in the New Year and to discard the old. It is an eight to 15-day festival that is celebrated towards the end of February.
  • Saga Dawa is celebrated in the fourth month as per the lunar calendar and is regarded as the holiest period for Buddhists. This month marks the birth of Lord Buddha, his attainment of supreme enlightenment and his passing into the state of nirvana. It normally falls in the month of May.
Important Personalities:
  • Talom Rukbo was a literary and social worker. He led the movement to revive Donyi-Polo, a religion that is followed by many tribal groups in Arunachal Pradesh. Because of his contribution to the Adivasi way of life, he has been named as one of the inspirations for the Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram project, which works for the upliftment of tribal people.
  • Mrinal Miri is an Indian philosopher and educationist. He is the chief executive officer of the Northern Hill University in Shillong. He has been awarded a Padma Bhushan for his contributions to the fields of education and literature.
The State is Famous for:
Special weapons and tools made by tribes using metal. Each tribe specialises in making different weapons, including daos, arrow heads, knives and iron bracelets.
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