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States of India: Rajasthan

Rajasthan is located in northern India and was created on November 1, 1956.

The name Rajasthan has been derived from the Sanskrit word 'raja' meaning 'king'. Until 1949, this area was known as Rajputana, meaning the 'land of the Rajputs'.

State Symbols:
State Bird: Great Indian Bustard
State Animal: Chinkara
State Flower: Desert Teak Flower
State Tree: Khejri


Ajmer, Alwar, Banswara, Baran, Barmer, Bharatpur, Bhilwara, Bikaner, Bundi, Chittorgarh, Churu, Dausa, Dholpur, Dungarpur, Hanumangarh, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jhalawar, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur, Karauli, Kota, Nagaur, Pali, Pratapgarh, Rajsamand, Sawai Madhopur, Sikar, Sirohi, Sri Ganganagar, Tonk, Udaipur.

Area and Borders:
The state covers an area of 3,42,239 square kilometres and is bordered by Pakistan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Punjab and Haryana.

Rajasthani and Hindi are the official languages.

Learn to Speak Rajasthani:
  • What is your name: Tharo naam kaain hein?
  • How are you?: Tu kiso hai?
  • I am fine: Main thik thak hu.
  • What did you do: Tu kaain karyo?
  • Where should I go?: Main kathi ne jaaon?



Since Rajasthan is a desert, it has extreme climatic conditions in summer and winter.

The rainfall varies throughout the state. The average annual rainfall ranges between 200 and 400mms and is as a low as 150mms in extremely dry zones. In the southern part of Rajasthan, it is as high as 1,000mms.


Rajasthan has two principal crop seasons - rabi and kharif. Rabi crops are harvested in the months of March and April and include barley, wheat, gram, pulses and oilseeds. The major oilseeds are rape and mustard. Kharif crops are harvested in the months of September and October and include bajra, pulses, jowar, maize and groundnut

The state is known for its rich zinc, copper, gypsum, lignite and mica deposits. The other industries that flourish here are cement, sugar and salt production. A town called Makrana is known for its marble deposits. Stone factories in Jodhpur are famous and the stone found here is called chittar patthar. Rajasthan is among the largest producers of edible oils in India and is also the second largest producer of oil seeds. Recently, industries such as cotton, textile and information technology have shown an upswing.

  • The Dilwara Temples of Mount Abu are a complex of temples carved in white marble. These were built between the 11th and 13th Centuries.
  • Umaid Bhawan Palace in Jodhpur is an awesome example of Indo-colonial architecture. This palace is one of the largest and grandest private residences in the world. The palace was built between 1929 and 1943.It took 3,000 artisans over 14 years to create this magnificent structure.
  • Hawa Mahal in Jaipur was built by Maharaja Jai Singh II in 1799 with the specific purpose of letting the royal women, who used to follow a strict purdah system, see the ceremonial processions on the street. As a result, the Hawa Mahal has 900 peepholes.
  • City Palace in Udaipur was built by Maharana Udai Singh, the founder of Udaipur. The palace is segregated into various distinct sections, some of which include the Moti Mahal, the Baari Mahal and the Suraj Gokhuda or sun balcony. 
  • The Chini Chitrashala here houses a rich collection of Chinese porcelain and the Laxmi Vilas Chowk is an art gallery.

Arts and Crafts:
Rajasthan is known for its traditional, colourful art. The block prints, tie and dye prints, Bagru rints, Sanganer prints and zari embroidery are some of the most famous crafts from this region. Handicraft items like wooden furniture and blue pottery are the other famous crafts.

Traditional Clothing:
Men wear a turban on their head. The colour of the turban, its style and how it is tied symbolise the caste and region from which the person belongs. On festive occasions, people can be seen wearing tie-and-dye or printed angarakhas or body protectors. Dhotis or pyjamas serve the purpose of covering the lower part of the body. Women wear ankle-length skirts called ghagharas. They also carry an odhani, which is a cotton cloth that acts as a veil for women. Women wear mojaris or jootis on their feet and ornaments all over their body.


Rajasthan is famous for its rich cuisine and desserts including lapsi, ghevar and mawa.

  • Teej is celebrated across the state at the beginning of the rainy season and is an especially important occasion for daughters and daughters-in-law. The most colourful Teej fair is held at Jaipur. Gorgeously decorated elephants, camels and horses are taken out during this time.
  • Gangaur is a religious festival celebrated by married women and young girls. The first important ritual of the festival is the collecting of ashes from the Holi fire in a pot. Wheat and barley seeds are buried in the ashes and watered every day until they germinate. A week after Holi, women mmerse their pots in a well or tank.
  • Other festivals include the Annual Camel Fair of Pushkar, held in October or November, and the Jaipur Literary Fair in January every year.

Important Personalities:
  • Maharana Pratap, the warrior king, is a renowned icon of Rajput bravery.
  • Prithviraj Chauhan, the last ruler of the Chauhan Dynasty, was born here in 1168. He was the son of Someshwar Chauhan, the king of Ajmer.
  • Laxman Singh is a creator of unique water conservation techniques. He has also worked on natural resource management systems in drought-prone districts of Rajasthan.
  • Ghanshyam Das Birla, better known as G D Birla, was an Indian businessman and member of the Birla family. In 1957, he was awarded India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan.

The State is Famous for:
Dances such as Ghoomar and Ger. Ghoomar is a circular dance in which men and women dance to the rhythm of traditional songs. Ger is a community dance performed on the occasion of Holi. Ger is a man�s dance and is performed to the beats of a big drum. 
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