How Touch-Screens Work

Science & Technology

Touch-screen monitors have become extremely common but have you ever wondered how they work? The touch-screen could have one of three basic systems that are used to recognise a person's touch. Touch-screen technology has been used in tablets and smartphones. Your touch-screen gizmo could be using any one of the following systems:

RESISTIVE SYSTEM
The resistive system consists of a normal glass panel that is covered with a conductive and a resistive metallic layer. These two layers are held apart by spacers and a scratch-resistant layer is placed on top of the whole setup. An electrical current runs through the two layers while the monitor is operational. When a user touches the screen, the two layers make contact in that exact spot. The change in the electrical field is noted and the coordinates of the point of contact are calculated by the computer. Once the coordinates are known, a special driver translates the touch into something that the operating system can understand, much as a computer mouse driver translates a mouse's movements into a click or a drag.

CAPACITIVE SYSTEM
In the capacitive system, a layer that stores an electrical charge is placed on the glass panel of the monitor. When a user touches the monitor with his or her finger, some of the charge is transferred to the user, so the charge on the capacitive layer decreases. This decrease is measured in circuits located at each corner of the monitor. The computer calculates where the touch event took place and then relays that information to the touchscreen driver software. 

SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE SYSTEM
On the monitor of a surface acoustic wave system, two transducers (one receiving and one sending) are placed along the x and y axes of the monitor's glass plate. Also placed on the glass are reflectors, which reflect an electrical signal sent from one transducer to the other. The receiving transducer is able to tell if the wave has been disturbed by a touch event at any instant and can locate it accordingly. Another area in which the three systems differ is the manner in which a stimulus is registered as a touch event. A resistive system registers a touch as long as the two layers make contact, which means that it doesn't matter if you touch it with your finger or a rubber ball. 

A capacitive system, on the other hand, must have a conductive input, usually your finger, in order to register a touch. The surface acoustic wave system works much like the resistive system, allowing a touch with almost any object except hard and small objects like a pen tip.

Also Read