HISTORY OF BASKETBALL
James Naismith was a Canadian physical education instructor who invented basketball in 1891. The first formal rules were devised in 1892. Initially, players dribbled a football ball up and down a court of unspecified
dimensions. Points were earned by landing the ball in a peach basket. Iron hoops and a hammock-style basket were introduced in 1893. However, another decade passed before the innovation of open-ended nets put an end to the practice of manually retrieving the ball from the basket each time a goal was scored. US Patent #1,718,305 was granted to G L Pierce on June 25, 1929 for the "basketball" used in the game.
12 BASKETBALL BASICS
- The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
- The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands or fist.
- A player cannot run with the ball.
- The ball must be held by the hands
- No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping of an opponent is allowed.
- A foul is defined as striking at the ball with the fist or violating rules 3, 4 and 5 as mentioned above.
- If either side makes three consecutive fouls, it shall count as a goal for the opponents.
- A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or battled from the ground into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal.
- When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it.
- The umpire shall be the judge of the players and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made.
- The referee shall be the judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play or in bounds and to which side it belongs and shall keep the time.
- The play shall take place in two halves with a short rest in between. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner.
- When you are about to shoot, it is important to be relaxed while also remaining focused on the basket. The shooter should concentrate on that portion of the rim of the basket that is closest to him/ her when shooting the ball into the basket. When shooting bank shots and lay-ups, the player should concentrate on that part of the backboard where he/ she intends on banking the ball.
- When shooting the ball into the basket, players should learn to be completely balanced. Proper all round balance of the body is critical when aiming the ball into the basket.
- It is important to develop the skill to sense when it is the right time to take a shot at the basket. Players must neither shoot too often nor too rarely. With enough practice, players will develop the ability to discern when it is the right time to shoot and when it is not.
- When using the jump shot to shoot, the jump should be natural and not forced. After jumping straight up, the ball should be released right at the crest of the elevation. A simple way to remember this is 'Up - Hover - Shoot!'
- The follow through after each shot players take at the basket is also very important. Each time they shoot, players should practise an appropriate follow through.
- While dribbling the ball, it is important to stay low.
- Keeping the head up while dribbling is also important.
- While dribbling and advancing with the ball, instead of avoiding the defender, attack him/ her.
- Purposeful dribbling is the most effective and pointless movements should be avoided.
- While dribbling, it is important to learn to use the body and the other hand to protect the ball.
- All players have one hand that is strong and the other that is weak. In order to be an ambidextrous dribbler, the weak hand must be strengthened by constant practice.
- The best way to keep the defender off-balance is to learn to change the pace of dribbling, sometimes speeding it up and at other times slowing it down.
- Another tactic to keep the defender off balance is to learn to change direction abruptly while dribbling.
- Once the player succeeds in beating the defender, he/she must learn how to keep the defender behind while keeping the ball in front.
- Dribbling mechanics and techniques can be improved by constant practice.
This article is compiled by Denis Lara D'souza for I&G Partners in Sports